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How to use the calculator in Windows 10
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You can use Calculator for a variety of tasks, from simple maths to advanced statistics. Here are answers to some common questions about the Calculator on the desktop.
For information about the Calculator app for Windows, see Calculator app for Windows: FAQ.
Calculator includes four modes – Standard, Scientific, Programmer and Statistics.
Open Calculator by swiping in from the right edge of the screen, tapping Search (or if you're using a mouse, pointing to the upperright corner of the screen, moving the mouse pointer down, and then clicking Search), entering calc.exe in the search box, and then tapping or clicking Calc.
Tap or click View, then choose the mode you want.
When you switch modes, your current calculation is deleted. Calculation history and numbers stored in memory are saved.
In this mode, you can perform calculations that are slightly more complex than in Standard mode.
To use inverse functions, tap or click the Inv button.
In Scientific mode, Calculator is precise to 32 significant digits.
If you combine several operators (+, , *, /), Calculator uses standard operator precedence – that is, it performs calculations in the following order:
1. Brackets (or parentheses)
2. Exponents and roots
3. Multiplication and division
4. Addition and subtraction
In this mode, Calculator is precise up to 64 bits, depending on the word size that you've selected.
Calculator honours operator precedence.
Programmer mode is an integeronly mode – the decimal portions of numbers aren't used.
In this mode, enter the data that you want to calculate statistics for, and then perform the calculations.
Enter your first piece of data, and then tap or click Add to add the data to the data set.
Tap or click the button for the statistical calculation you want to perform.
A session starts when you open Calculator and lasts until you close it. Calculation history saves all the calculations performed in a session. You can change the values in the history and calculate new results. You can see calculation history for both Standard and Scientific modes.
Tap or click View, and then tap or click History.
Swipe across or doubleclick the calculation that you want to edit.
Enter the new values that you want to calculate, and then press Enter.
Calculation history is kept separately for Standard and Scientific modes. You’ll see the history for the mode that you're using.
Tap or click View, then tap or click Unit conversion.
Under Select the type of unit you want to convert, tap or click the type of unit you want to convert, the value you want to convert from, and the value you want to convert to.
In the From box, enter the value that you want to convert.
Yes, you can use Calculator to find out the difference between two dates or to add or subtract days from a specified date.
Tap or click View, and then tap or click Date calculation.
Under Select the date calculation you want, choose the type of calculation you want to perform.
Pick your values, and then tap or click Calculate.
Tap or click View, tap or point to Worksheets, then tap or click the item you want to calculate.
Under Select the value you want to calculate, choose the value that you want to calculate, enter the values in the text boxes, then tap or click Calculate.
You can use Calculator to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Calculator also offers the advanced capabilities of scientific and statistical calculators.
You can perform calculations by clicking the calculator buttons, or you can type calculations by using your keyboard. You can also use the numeric keypad to type numbers and operators by pressing NUM LOCK.
Here are answers to common questions about Calculator.
Open Calculator by clicking the Start button , clicking All Programs, clicking Accessories, and then clicking Calculator.
Type or click the first number in the calculation.
Click + to add,  to subtract, * to multiply, or / to divide.
Type or click the next number in the calculation.
Type or click any remaining operators and numbers.
Click =.
Click the View menu, and then click Scientific.
Click a number system.
Click the display size you want to use, and then continue with your calculation.
Type or click your first piece of data, and then click Sta to open the Statistics Box dialog box.
Click RET to return to Calculator, and then click Dat to save the value.
Type or click the rest of the data, clicking Dat after each entry.
Click Ave, Sum, or s.
Ave calculates the mean of the values saved in the Statistics Box dialog box, Sum calculates the sum of the values, and s calculates the standard deviation.
After you have entered all of your data, you can see the list by clicking Sta.
The number of values that you have saved is tracked at the bottom of the Statistics Box dialog box. You can delete a specific value from the list by clicking CD, or you can delete all of the values by clicking CAD. Clicking Load changes the number in the Calculator display area to the number selected in the Statistics Box dialog box.
When you store a number in memory, an M appears in the box above the memory options. If you store another number, it replaces the one currently in memory. You can work with numbers stored in memory in the following ways:
To store the displayed number, click MS.
To recall a stored number, click MR.
To clear the memory, click MC.
To add the displayed number to the number already in memory, click M+. To see the new number, click MR.
Click MS to store the displayed number.
Click the View menu, and then click the desired view.
Click MR to recall the stored number.
Calculator clears the display when switching between the Standard and Scientific views.
A number typed in hexadecimal, octal, or binary format will be converted to decimal format when transferring from Scientific to Standard view.
Type the number you want to convert.
Click the number system you want to convert to.
Click the display size you want to use.
When you convert a decimal number that contains decimal places to another number system, the number is shortened to an integer.
Numbers converted to decimal from hexadecimal, octal, or binary appear as positive integers.
In the hexadecimal, binary, and octal number systems, Calculator displays only the lower digits of an answer when the result has more digits than your display size allows. This behavior mimics the way calculations work in computers.
For the hexadecimal number system, QWORD results can contain up to 16 digits (64 bits), DWORD results can contain up to eight digits (32 bits), Word results can contain up to four digits (16 bits), and Byte results can contain up to two digits (8 bits).
For example, using the hexadecimal number system displayed as Word, the largest result you can generate is FFFF (equal to 65535 in decimal). If you double that number (FFFFx2), the answer is 1FFFE. This contains five digits, so Calculator will display only the lower four digits of the answer: FFFE.
You can use digit grouping to view numbers as logically grouped. To do this, click the View menu, and then click Digit grouping.
The following table describes the Calculator functions:
%
Displays the result of multiplication as a percentage. Enter one number, click *, enter the second number, and then click %. For example, 50 * 25% will display 12.5. You can also perform operations with percentages. Enter one number, click the operator (+, , *, or /), enter the second number, click %, and then click =. For example, 50 + 25% (of 50) = 62.5.
(
Starts a new level of parentheses. The current number of levels appears in the box above the ) button. The maximum number of levels is 25.
)
Closes the current level of parentheses.
*
Multiplies.
+
Adds.
+/
Changes the sign of the displayed number.

Subtracts.
.
Inserts a decimal point.
/
Divides.
0–9
Puts this number in the calculator display.
1/x
Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number.
=
Performs any operation on the previous two numbers. To repeat the last operation, click = again.
A–F
Enters the selected letter in the value. This button is available only if hexadecimal mode is turned on.
And
Calculates bitwise AND. The behavior of logical operators is undefined unless the inputs are integers.
Ave
Calculates the mean of the values displayed in the Statistics Box dialog box. To calculate the mean of the squares, use Inv+Ave. This button is available only if you click Sta first.
Backspace
Deletes the last digit of the displayed number.
Bin
Converts the displayed number to the binary number system. The maximum unsigned binary value is an expression of 64 bits, all set to 1.
C
Clears the current calculation.
CE
Clears the displayed number.
cos
Calculates the cosine of the displayed number. To calculate the arc cosine, use Inv+cos. To calculate the hyperbolic cosine, use Hyp+cos. To calculate the arc hyperbolic cosine, use Inv+Hyp+cos. You can use cos only with the decimal number system.
Dat
Enters the displayed number in the Statistics Box dialog box. This button is available only if you click Sta first.
Dec
Converts the displayed number to the decimal number system.
Degrees
Sets trigonometric input for degrees when in decimal mode.
dms
Converts the displayed number to degreeminutesecond format (assuming that the displayed number is in degrees). To convert the displayed number to degrees (assuming that the displayed number is in degreeminutesecond format), use Inv+dms. You can use dms only with the decimal number system.
Exp
Allows entry of scientificnotation numbers. The exponent is limited to four digits. You can use only decimal digits (keys 0 through 9) in the exponent. You can use Exp only with the decimal number system.
FE
Turns scientific notation on and off. Numbers larger than 10^32 are always displayed exponentially. You can use FE only with the decimal number system.
Grads
Sets trigonometric input for grads when in decimal mode.
Hex
Converts the displayed number to the hexadecimal number system. The maximum unsigned hexadecimal value is 64 bits, all set to 1.
Hyp
Sets the hyperbolic function for sin, cos, and tan. The functions automatically turn off the hyperbolic function after a calculation is completed.
Int
Displays the integer portion of a decimal value. To display the fractional portion of a decimal value, use Inv+Int.
Inv
Sets the inverse function for sin, cos, tan, PI, x^y, x^2, x^3, ln, log, Ave, Sum, and s. The functions automatically turn off the inverse function after a calculation is completed.
ln
Calculates natural (base e) logarithm. To calculate e raised to the xth power, where x is the current number, use Inv+ln.
log
Calculates the common (base 10) logarithm. To calculate 10 raised to the xth power, use Inv+log.
Lsh
Shifts left. To shift right, use Inv+Lsh. After clicking this button, you must specify (in binary) how many positions to the left or to the right you want to shift the number in the display area, and then click =. The behavior of logical operators is undefined unless the inputs are integers.
M+
Adds the displayed number to any number already in memory but does not display the sum of these numbers.
MC
Clears any number stored in memory.
Mod
Displays the modulus, or remainder, of x/y. Use this button as a binary operator. For example, to find the modulus of 5 divided by 3, click 5 MOD 3 =, which equals 2.
MR
Recalls the number stored in memory. The number remains in memory.
MS
Stores the displayed number in memory.
n!
Calculates the factorial of the displayed number.
Not
Calculates bitwise inverse. The behavior of logical operators is undefined unless the inputs are integers.
Oct
Converts the displayed number to the octal number system. The maximum unsigned octal value is an expression of 64 bits, all set to 1.
Or
Calculates bitwise OR. The behavior of logical operators is undefined unless the inputs are integers.
pi
Displays the value of pi (3.1415...). To display 2 * pi (6.28...), use Inv+pi. You can use pi only with the decimal number system.
Radians
Sets trigonometric input for radians when in decimal mode.
s
Calculates standard deviation with the population parameter as –1. To calculate standard deviation with the population parameter as n, use Inv+s. This button is available only if you click Sta first.
sin
Calculates the sine of the displayed number. To calculate the arc sine, use Inv+sin. To calculate the hyperbolic sine, use Hyp+sin. To calculate the arc hyperbolic sine, use Inv+Hyp+sin. You can use sin only with the decimal number system.
sqrt
Calculates the square root of the displayed number.
Sta
Displays the Statistics Box dialog box and activates Ave, Sum, s, and Dat.
Sum
Calculates the sum of the values displayed in the Statistics Box dialog box. To calculate the sum of the squares, use Inv+Sum. This button is available only if you click Sta first.
tan
Calculates the tangent of the displayed number. To calculate the arc tangent, use Inv+tan. To calculate the hyperbolic tangent, use Hyp+tan. To calculate the arc hyperbolic tangent, use Inv+Hyp+tan. You can use tan only with the decimal number system.
Xor
Calculates bitwise exclusive OR. The behavior of logical operators is undefined unless the inputs are integers.
x^2
Squares the displayed number. To calculate the square root, use Inv+x^2.
x^3
Cubes the displayed number. To calculate the cube root, use Inv+x^3.
x^y
Computes x raised to the yth power. Use this button as a binary operator. For example, to find 2 raised to the 4th power, click 2 x^y 4 =, which equals 16. To calculate the yth root of x, use Inv+x^y.
Yes. The following table describes the keyboard equivalents of the Calculator controls:
F9
. or ,
r
ENTER
&
CTRL+A
BACKSPACE
F8
Byte
F4
ESC
DEL
o
INS
F6
F2
m
Dword
x
v
F5
h
;
I
n
l
<
CTRL+P
CTRL+L
CTRL+R
CTRL+M
!
~
F7
vertical bar ()
p
Qword
F12
F3
CTRL+D
@
CTRL+S
CTRL+T
t
Word
^
#
y