Windows provides three main ways to share files directly from your computer: Public folder sharing, individual folder sharing, and homegroups.
The advantage of the Public folder is simplicity. All computers running Windows have Public folders. Anybody with a user account and password on a computer can access the public folders. The downside? Precisely that. Everybody has access to them.
If you'd like more control over who can access a particular file or folder, you can share just that file or folder. This type of sharing requires slightly more effort to set up, but you can control specifically who can see or modify your files or folders. With this method, there's no need to spend time copying or moving files; you can share them from wherever they are on your computer.
The easiest way to share files on a home network is to create or join a homegroup. A homegroup is a group of computers that share pictures, music, videos, documents, and even printers. The computers must be running Windows 7 to participate in a homegroup.
For more information about each option, see File sharing essentials.